- MedOne Ophthalmology
- ChapterSource: Scott I, Regillo C, Flynn H et al., ed. Vitreoretinal Disease: Diagnosis, Management, and Clinical Pearls. 2nd Edition. Thieme; 2017. doi:10.1055/b-005-143340Comment: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive diagnostic imaging technology that renders in vivo cross-sectional images of light-scattering media with micron resolution. OCT is based on the principles of optical interferometry, which is a technique of extracting information about waves based on constructive or destructive inference patterns when two waves are superimposed.
Radiologic Assessment of the Orbit and Lacrimal System, selected from Endoscopic Surgery of the Orbit: Anatomy, Pathology, and Management, Benjamin S. Bleier, Suzanne K. Freitag, and Raymond Sacks, 2018Source: Bleier B, Freitag S, Sacks R, ed. Endoscopic Surgery of the Orbit: Anatomy, Pathology, and Management. 1st Edition. Thieme; 2018. doi:10.1055/b-006-160139Comment: Radiologic assessment of the orbit is helpful for preoperative planning of orbital tumor resection as it can help narrow the differential diagnosis for an orbital mass and assess the surrounding anatomic structures. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) can be complementary modalities. CT can help determine osseous landmarks and bone erosion. MR can help assess the extent of soft-tissue abnormality and can be particularly helpful in identifying soft-tissue characteristics that can help determine the identity of a lesion. The presence of orbital fat provides an excellent medium to contrast the extent of tumor involvement. Furthermore, for preoperative assessment for endoscopic approaches to the orbit, MR and CT can help distinguish the lesion in relation to the ophthalmic artery, optic nerve, annulus of Zinn and medial rectus muscle. Additional tests such as dacryocystography can also be considered when assessing for primary nasolacrimal duct lesions.
Diabetic Macular Edema, selected from Ophthalmology Review: A Case-Study Approach, 2e, Kuldev Singh, William E. Smiddy, and Andrew G. Lee, 2018Source: Singh K, Smiddy W, Lee A, ed. Ophthalmology Review: A Case-Study Approach. 2nd Edition. Thieme; 2018. doi:10.1055/b-006-160162Comment: Treatment of diabetic macular edema has been transformed during the past decade with the advent of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. While laser has not been totally removed from the treatment armamentarium, it plays a small role in current therapy algorithms. There are specific associated features such as proliferative disease, initial visual acuity, and systemic control that can influence the treatment approach. Indications for treatment have changed little, but optical coherence tomography imaging studies now play the dominant role in diagnosing and monitoring treatment, with diminishing roles for fluorescein angiography. Surgical management of diabetic macular edema remains controversial, and probably should best be considered in cases with demonstrable preretinal traction.
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